When Jennifer Love, RN, BA, CCDS, accepted a CDI position Kindred Healthcare, one of the nation’s largest long-term acute care (LTAC) providers, she found a brandnew opportunity. As its name implies, LTACs provide care for patients with serious (acute) medical needs over a long period of time, usually between 20 and 30 days. Most CDI specialists work in short-term acute care (STAC) facilities. So Love saw the LTAC opening as a chance to broaden her CDI horizons.
“It is exciting to see CDI expand out like this,” she says. “I feel like I dove into the future.”
The payment system is essentially the same as that of STAC facilities—LTACs use ICD-9 codes and MS-DRGs for Medicare patients, for example. But whereas STACs look to reduce a patient’s geometric length of stay (GLOS), an LTAC patient is expected to require a longer treatment period.
LTACs treat a very specific type of patient, says Love. Patients can be morbidly obese, suffer from bed sores and acute renal failure, and have often undergone tracheostomies.
The top DRGs at Love’s facilities include:
- 207: respiratory system diagnosis with ventilator support 96+ hours
- 189: pulmonary edema and respiratory failure
- 592 and 593: skin ulcers with CC/MCC
- 870 and 871: septicemia or severe sepsis with mechanical ventilation 96+ hours; and with MCC
If a patient leaves the LTAC sooner (or longer) than expected, a number of questions need to be asked and answered, says Becky Slagell, BA, MHA, RHIT, CPHQ, regional senior director of case management for the Central Region Long-Term Acute Hospital Division at Kindred Healthcare.
“We need to ask ourselves why that patient was discharged earlier than patients with similar concerns. Was [he/ she] truly safe for discharge? Was [he/she] able to go home earlier than normally expected for that type of patient? Did [he/she] transfer back to a STAC? If so, why?” Slagell says.
“There shouldn’t be a high rate of COPD in a LTAC setting,” Slagell says. “That is a chronic condition that by itself does not require our level of care. When a CDI specialist sees that, they’ll look further in the record and see what the situation is. Is there an acute exacerbation of the COPD such as aspiration pneumonia or respiratory failure?”
This complicated level of care makes the role of the CDI specialist very important for this particular setting, says Slagell.
Complex metrics regarding physician response rates and staff productivity help the CDI manager quantify the CDI program benefits to facility administrators and to CDI program staff when presented properly. The manager helps communicate facility priorities to his or her team and to illustrate the needs of the CDI department to hospital administrators. Furthermore, the manager must maintain awareness of any changes in government regulations and industry guidance. Changes in the larger industry will affect the CDI team’s productivity, and any metric must be discussed within the context of these changes.
The manager should review not only the percentage of charts examined by the team, but also the number and type of queries needed each month. It is important to document the outcomes of these reviews. The aggregate data can then be used for process improvement and to support corporate compliance activities. The following is a list of items to review routinely and share with the compliance committee and administration when relevant.
- Trends in types of queries: one condition being queried routinely (e.g., a type/phase of congestive heart failure [CHF])
- Trends by physicians: multiple queries to the same physician regarding the same condition (e.g., a physician continuing to use the term urosepsis after repeated queries and communication as to the need for further specificity)
- Trends by individual CDI specialists (e.g., a CDI specialist continuously querying for specification that is already documented in the chart)
A change in ICD-9-CM Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting may affect the query percentage for a period of time. A good example is the increased documentation specificity required for heart failure when coding guidelines were revised and reindexed to allow for greater specificity in reporting the phase and specific type of heart disease. Prior to the implementation of MS-DRG, it was only necessary for the physician to document “heart failure” or “CHF.” Both terms were considered CCs.
If one looks back far enough, many CDI teams’ data show a surge in queries for the period of time immediately prior to and following the implementation of the MS-DRG system.
In summary, team performance cannot be determined solely through measurement of query volume. Many factors influence this indicator and it should not be used to determine a program’s effectiveness, but rather should be used as an indicator of opportunities for improvement (e.g., physician education, form revision) or performance improvement over time.
When ACDIS put out the call for participation in its 2014 CDI Salary Survey last week more than 500 people responded. We need you to take a few minutes to complete the survey, too. Why? Because these surveys provide us with a snapshot view of how changes in the profession affect how you get paid for the work you do. And, you can use the results to make the case for changes in your own compensation! It’s true. We’ve heard from a number of ACDIS members who’ve analyzed the data against their own circumstances and got the compensation they deserved.
Last year about 25% of respondents said they earned $60,000–$69,999 annually; but the number of individuals earning $50,000-$59,999 decreased by 4% and the number of those earning $70,000-$79,999 increased by about 4%.
How have salary rates changes since last year’s survey? You tell us! Please complete the 2014 CDI Specialist’s Salary Benchmarking Survey. We will share the results in a special report later this year.
An average rule of thumb is for a CDI program to employ one CDI specialist for every 1,250 to 1,500 discharges per year. Consider higher staff ratios for programs that expect CDI specialists to perform multiple functions (core measures review, utilization management, etc.) and a lower ratio for programs that perform condition clarifications only. Other considerations include the amount of vacation time staff have available; programs that hired tenured CDI staff may have to adjust for higher weeks of vacation availability. As program expectations change, review staffing requirements to ensure that existing staff can accomplish the new goals with the resources available.
In general, a dedicated CDI specialist should have an average daily census of 12-15 new patients and between five and 10 established and follow-up cases. This census will allow for appropriate query follow-up and daily reconciliation of discharged cases. Therefore, the decision of how many new staff members to hire can be made by dividing the average daily census by 15. CDI leaders can further quantify that number by obtaining the average daily admission numbers.
Another variable to consider is if the CDI specialist is allowed to determine at what point they stop reviewing a case or if they are required to re-review the case periodically until discharge. This can also have an impact on the number of cases per CDI staff member.
Keep in mind that the CDI staff generally work Monday through Friday so their actual daily census will be higher, especially on Mondays. Increasingly, however, facilities appear willing to adopt a more flexible schedule. These schedules may include a rotating day of the weekend and/or different staggered shifts to make CDI specialists more available to the medical staff.
Q: I am the only CDI specialist in our 150-bed facility. I have held the position for three years, and am the first one to do so helping to build the position from the ground up. Being the only CDI, I am on several committees, responsible for continual physician education, continuing medical education presentations. I am a constant clinical resource for our inpatient coders, and do all payer reviews everyday which amounts to between 25 and 40 reviews and re-reviews per day.
We have no coding compliance person at this time and I have been asked to review charts for the coders which involve single CC/MCC and/or those that may have a complication as well. My query rate has since dropped and I am being asked why. I feel helpless. Are there standards for CDI productivity for a one woman show?
A: I have worked in small hospitals for most of my nursing career and as in any institution when you display your value, skills and talents, administrators begin to put more on your plate, at times overloading it. Unfortunately, in a small hospital there are less “plates” at the table and it can be easy to become overwhelmed.
The role of the CDI is an important one, and your organization sees that because they wish to have you involved in so many different endeavors. Your description above reflects the position I held in CDI for approximately four years before my organization decided to further invest in expanding the number of CDIs.
There are many reasons that might lead to a drop in query rate, one being that your physicians are learning. With the initiation of a program, the query rate is often higher and tends to level out as the physicians learn about the needed documentation. This means you have done such a great job that the issues are less, requiring less queries.
On the negative side, if you are feeling rushed to complete reviews the quality of your reviews may have dropped. As you know, it takes time to dig thorough the record to find potential opportunities. If time is an issue, we might not ‘dive’ into the record as deep as we should. Since you are alone, it might be a good time to discuss how to prioritize accounts with your supervisor. Are there certain accounts that you may be able to pass over?
I love that you review all payers but when you are working by yourself, this may not always be a reasonable option. Do you review every patient every day? How do you decide how often to review or when you can stop the concurrent review process on a specific account? This would be a great discussion to have with your manager or leadership team.
Are you seeing a drop in other measures applied to your program? Is there a rise in retrospective queries? This would demonstrate that perhaps you are not catching such query opportunities up front. If there is no rise in the retrospective query rate it might mean that you a capturing query opportunity quite well. How is the physician response rate? CC- MCC capture rate? CMI? Are your other measures seeing a decline as well?
As for performing second level reviews for the coders, perhaps they could put a system in place in which another coder first looks at the record before it hits your desk, especially for those records in which there is only one CC or MCC. This might decrease the number of reviews you are required to do in these instances.
Take a look at the 2014 CDI Productivity Survey published by ACDIS as well as other suggestions from the Association. This might give you some comparison, or offer tools that you can use when speaking to your manager. I understand creating new positions especially in smaller hospitals is next to impossible but the return on investment for CDI expansion is a positive one.
CDI practice can encompass a large variety of organizational needs from medical necessity to quality, core measures etc. It is important to not cast such a wide net that the person(s) performing the task cannot succeed. Also, if you are a member the CDI Talk list-serve is a perfect opportunity to “ask around” and see what others are being asked to do and with what resources.
I suggest after a little research you sit down with your management team and discuss what is the expected focus of your program? What is the mission and goals? Review your assigned responsibilities and ask assistance in prioritization of these tasks or perhaps identify others that could support you.
You should also consider the impact of ICD-10 on your organization. We expect coder productivity to drop up to 60% primarily due to PCS coding. The more investment up front in CDI, both to provide teaching and concurrent chart review, could help to ameliorate the impact of productivity drop. This is why many organizations (big and small) are increasing their numbers in the CDI department.
There were times when I felt quite overwhelmed too. It is difficult to be the sole CDI, as no one really understands what you do and why. And it is easy for all concerned to think adding just one more duty to the list won’t hurt. I had an excellent mentor when I started in nursing management several years ago. She taught me that when I was feeling overwhelmed and was handed a new responsibility, to respond “I am more than happy to take this on, can we discuss what task or responsibility I might be able to give up so that I might have the time to lend my skills and focus to this issue.” Smile when you say it, I was always amazed at how well it worked!
National Nurses Week is celebrated annually from May 6, also known as National Nurses Day, through May 12, the birthday of Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing. This year’s theme is “Nurses Leading the Way,” a theme ACDIS can certainly support. So many of our own members hail from nursing backgrounds, and so many of you lead the way to ensure that appropriate clinical information gets included in the medical record. You “lead the way” in ensuring physicians understand how their documentation gets coded. You “lead the way” in helping coders get the information they need. You “lead the way” in ensuring that accurate data leads to appropriate care outcomes.
As the American Nurses Association states on its website, “every day, nurses step forward embracing new technologies, resolving emerging issues, and accepting ever-changing roles in their profession. They lead the way for their patients, colleagues, organizations, and the healthcare industry as a whole.” We wholeheartedly endorse this statement and embrace it as representative of our own members as well, regardless of whether they hail from nursing or coding backgrounds.
Although we converge on Vegas this week for our own education and networking conference we pause for a moment to recognize Nurses Week and the underlying reason for a professional career in healthcare–caring for one another.
If you are not able to join us for the 7th Annual Conference, consider listening in to the AHA’s free webinar “Transforming Health Care Through Nursing Leadership,” on Wednesday, May 7, at 1 p.m. Eastern. Healthcare is constantly changing and evolving. Today, more than ever, nurses are stepping out of their comfort zones and becoming active contributors and innovators in the healthcare system. As CDI professionals you know that to be just as true for you as it is for nursing professionals. Celebrate your endeavors and support the nurses around you this week.